GOD’s many Names
GOD’s Names - Titles - Descriptions - of HIS natures.
Seek the Truth with all your heart.
The names and titles of GOD declare to the world WHO HE is. They also answer our deepest questions regarding our relationship to, and with, GOD.
Every Name or title reveals an attribute of GOD’s divine character.
(GOD was traditionally written in Hebrew as G-d, because HIS NAME was considered too holy to be written or spoken in full.)
GOD’s Name properly used has unlimited power to bless and protect.
At the end of time, every knee will bow, in heaven, on Earth, and under the Earth, when HIS NAME is proclaimed.
We can call GOD ‘Papa’ or ‘Daddy’ without a trace of irreverence, and the Hebrew word ‘Abba’ means the same. When we received GOD’s Spirit – the Holy Spirit - HE adopted us as HIS OWN children, so now we can call HIM ‘ABBA FATHER.’
People who have carelessly used ‘Jesus’ as a shoddy swear word, will fall down in terror on that truly awesome day of HIS return. They will lament bitterly - why did we not seek - not listen - not realize - not respond. They had allowed Satan – GOD’s enemy – to blind them – to give ‘religion’ and Christianity a bad image in every way to stop them seeing the wonderful life that it truly is. Satan blocked their understanding, their awareness, and any desire to think about, and access, the true greatness of GOD and eternal life.
However all those who have drawn close to GOD through uttering HIS Name in great trust, love, hope, and expectation, will be filled with inexpressible Joy. This is our great hope as we await HIS return.
The prohibition of the making of carved images is accompanied by the warning that GOD is a consuming fire:
Deuteronomy 4:23-24 ‘Watch out for yourselves, so that you won’t forget the covenant of Adonai your GOD, which HE made with you, and make yourself a carved image, a representation of anything forbidden to you by Adonai your GOD. For Adonai your GOD is a consuming fire, a Jealous GOD [ElKanah].’ Jealous here means being protective and possessive of all who love GOD, and who HE loves.
The name of GOD used in this verse is El Kanah (Jealous GOD). This name is also mentioned elsewhere in this Parasha in: Deuteronomy 5:9. 6:15. Exodus 34:14.
1 Kings 19:10 & 14. (Kanah is often translated as zealous.)
The name El Kanah reveals that GOD is protective of HIS people and HIS relationship with them. In the same way the relationship between a husband and a wife is sacred, HE will not share with us, our praise, and devotion to other ‘gods.’ Those ‘gods’ can be anything which people are devoted to, and treat as first priority before GOD our CREATOR.
The covenant GOD made with Israel at Mount Sinai is likened to a marriage ceremony, complete with the cloud covering, symbolizing the chuppah (marriage canopy in Jewish tradition) and the ketubah (marriage contract), outlining the responsibilities and privileges of both bride and bridegroom and the agreed vows.
GOD is, therefore, asking HIS people to be faithful to HIM, forsaking all other ‘gods.’ All forms of idolatry and worship of false gods is ‘spiritual adultery,’ and can be likened to an unfaithful spouse who commits adultery.
The Lord lovingly and faithfully watches over His Bride - us His children - all who love Him, and He jealously guards ‘her’ - us - like a passionate husband protecting his bride.
GOD is El Shaddai = Almighty All Sufficient GOD, and HE is El Gibor - Mighty GOD.
This name is used over 6000 times in the Bible.
El Shaddai - GOD the All Sufficient - is an interesting name of GOD that reveals the maternal quality of GOD’s character as nurturer, comforter, and sustainer of life-giving nourishment; since it relates to the Hebrew word for a woman’s breast.
Isaiah 9:6 “And HE will be called Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty GOD, Everlasting FATHER, Prince of Peace.”
Exodus 6:2-3 “I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, as GOD ALMIGHTY = (El Shaddai).”
Variations of the Hebrew name Yeshua (Jesus). The top two are pronounced Yehoshua, and the bottom one is a contraction that is pronounced Yeshua. This spelling and pronunciation was typical in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period.
The sacred name of GOD, often referred to as the Tetragrammaton, consists of the following four Hebrew letters: YUD HEY VAV HEY.
(Hebrew is read from right to left.)
The original Hebrew text did not use vowels, so it is impossible to determine the exact pronunciation of this name, and therefore it has been the subject of much speculation and controversy. It is often transcribed in English as Jehovah or Yahweh or Yahveh.
THE ALPHA AND OMEGA: The First and the Last. The Beginning and the End.
Omega in the Bible means the end of all things – with eternity following.
El: = Almighty -- All sufficient One – Invincible – Everlasting FATHER – Wonderful FATHER – Mighty GOD.
Elahh, Elowahh, Eloahh: = Deity
El Elyon / Elyown: = The most high GOD. Supreme GOD.
Elohim: = Deity. GOD our Creator. ‘The powerful One’. Genesis 1
The precise descriptive meaning of ELOHIM is possibly beyond human translation - definition. There is only one GOD, but ‘Elohim’ being singular and plural, embraces HIS many qualities - abilities – powers – functions – expressions, all of which GOD provides – applies - in simultaneous multiplicity.
In Hebrew the name of GOD is spelled YHWH, & some used YHVH. As ancient Hebrew had no written vowels, it is uncertain how the name was pronounced originally, but Greek records of the name did have written vowels. These records indicate that most likely the name should be pronounced "Yahweh" = ‘yarway’.
Shortly before the first century A.D., it became usual for Jews to avoid saying the divine name for fear of misusing it and breaking the second commandment ("You shall not take the name of the Lord, your GOD, in vain," Deut. 5:11). Whenever they read Scripture aloud and encountered the divine name, they substituted another Hebrew word "Adonai" - which means "Lord" or "my Lord" in its place.
YHVH = Yahveh or Yahweh – Jehovah - Jah = I AM WHO I AM. Lord GOD our FATHER. The Lord GOD - Our GOD - My LORD GOD. ‘Eternal’ – ‘Self-Existent One’ Genesis 2:7
Jehovah Sabaoth/Tsivaot: = The Lord of Hosts.
Jehovah Jireh: = The Lord GOD, My Provider. The Lord will Provide.
More accurately: The Lord Will See. Genesis 22:8-14. Psalm22:14. Philippians 4:19.
Jehovah El Shaddai: = The Lord GOD ALMIGHTY. The Lord my All Sufficient Supplier. More than enough. The GOD of might, strength, power, nourishment, bounty, & blessings.
Genesis 17:1- 4
Shadday: = Omnipotent, Almighty El (epithet=descriptive)
Adonai: = My Lord and Master. Sovereign, Deity, Ruler, Omnipotent. Genesis 18:3
Jehovah Rapha, Rophe, (Ropheka): = The Lord GOD, our Healer. Exodus 15:26
Jehovah Nissi: = The Lord GOD, our Banner, our Victory. Exodus 17:15
Jehovah Mekaddishkem: = The Lord GOD, our Sanctifier. Exodus 31:13 Leviticus 20:7-8
Jehovah Shalom: = Tz’va’ot The Lord GOD, our Peace. Total wellness and wholeness in every way. Judges 6:24
Jehovah Tsidkenu: = The Lord GOD, my Righteousness. Jeremiah 23:5-6 & 33:16
Jehovah Rohi: = The Lord GOD, our Shepherd. Psalm 23:1
Jehovah Shammah: = The Lord GOD, the Abiding Presence. Ezekiel 48:35.
El Owlan: = The Everlasting. Deity. The Lord is (always) there.
Yahweh Hoseenu: = The Lord our Maker.
Yahweh Eloheenu: = The Lord our GOD.
Rome removed the name Yahveh and replaced it with titles and epithets (descriptions). Jehovah was a substituted name, created to help conceal the name of YAHVEH.
El `Olam = Everlasting GOD.
El Hai = Living GOD.
El Ro’I = GOD of Seeing.
El Elohe Israel = GOD, the GOD of Israel.
El Gibhor = GOD of Strength. Mighty GOD.
Adown = Ruler, magistrate.
Tsur = Rock (epithet).
(‘Jesus Christ the Messiah’ in Hebrew = ‘Yeshua HaMashiach.’)
EL: GOD ("mighty, strong, prominent") used 250 times in the Old Testament (OT) See Gen. 7:1, 28:3, 35:11; Nu. 23:22; Josh. 3:10; 2 Sam. 22:31, 32; Neh. 1:5, 9:32; Isa. 9:6; Ezek. 10:5. El is linguistically equivalent to the Moslem "Allah," but the attributes of Allah in Islam are entirely different from those of the GOD of the Hebrews. ELAH is Aramaic, "god." Elah appears in the Hebrew Bible in Jer. 10:11 (which is in Aramaic, and is plural, "gods"). In Daniel (the Aramaic sections) Elah is used both of pagan gods, and of the true GOD, also plural. Elah is equivalent to the Hebrew Eloah which some think is dual; Elohim is three or more. The gods of the nations are called "elohim." The origin of Eloah is obscure. Elohim is the more common plural form of El. Eloah is used 41 times in Job between 3:4 and 40:2, but fewer than 15 times elsewhere in the OT. (See the Catholic Encyclopedia entry on Elohim.)
ELOHIM: GOD (a plural noun, two or more, used with singular verbs); Elohim occurs 2,570 times in the Old Testament, 32 times in Genesis 1. GOD as Creator, Preserver, Transcendent, Mighty, Strong. Ecclesiastes, Daniel. Jonah use Elohim almost exclusively. See Gen. 17:7, 6:18, 9:15, 50:24; I Kings 8:23; Jer. 31:33; Isa. 40:1.
The precise descriptive meaning of ELOHIM is possibly beyond human translation / definition. There is only one GOD, but Elohim, being singular and plural, embraces HIS many qualities - abilities – powers – functions – expressions, all applied in simultaneous multiplicity. It embraces GOD’s sovereignty as ruler of HIS Government of Heaven = GOD’s Kingdom.
EL SHADDAI: GOD Almighty or "GOD All Sufficient." 48 times in the OT, 31 times in Job. First used in Gen. 17:1, 2. (Gen. 31:29, 49:24, 25; Prov. 3:27; Micah 2:1; Isa. 60:15, 16, 66:10-13; Ruth 1:20, 21) In Rev. 16:7, "Lord GOD the Almighty." The Septuagint uses Greek "ikanos" meaning "all-sufficient" or "self-sufficient." The idols of the heathen are called "sheddim."
ADONAI: Lord in our English Bibles (Capitol letter 'L ', lower case, 'ord') (Adonai is plural, the singular. is "adon"). "Master'' or "Lord" 300 times in the OT, always plural when referring to GOD, when sung. the reference is to a human lord. Used 215 times to refer to men. First use of Adonai, Gen. 15:2. (Ex. 4:10; Judges 6:15; 2 Sam. 7:18-20; Ps. 8, 114:7, 135:5, 141:8, 109:21-28). Heavy use in Isaiah (Adonai Jehovah). 200 times by Ezekiel. Ten times in Dan. 9.
JEHOVAH: LORD in our English Bibles (all capitals).
YAHWEH is the covenant name of GOD. Occurs 6823 times in the OT. First use is in Gen. 2:4 (Jehovah Elohim). From the verb "to be," havah, similar to chavah (to live), "The Self-Existent One," “Self Sustaining One” "I AM WHO I AM" or 'I WILL BE WHO I WILL BE" as revealed to Moses at the burning bush, Ex.3. The name of GOD, too sacred to be uttered, abbreviated ( . . . . ) or written "YHWH" without vowel points. The tetragrammaton. Josh., Judges, Sam., and Kings use Jehovah almost exclusively. The love of GOD is conditioned upon His moral and spiritual attributes. (Dan. 9:14; Ps. 11:7; Lev. 19:2; Hab. 1:12). Note Deut. 6:4, 5 known to Jews as the Sh'ma uses both Jehovah and Elohim to indicate one GOD with a plurality of persons.
JEHOVAH-JIREH: "The Lord will Provide." Gen. 22:14. From "jireh" ("to see" or "to provide," or to "foresee" as a prophet.) GOD always provides adequately when the times come.
JEHOVAH-ROPHE: "The Lord Who Heals" Ex. 15:22-26. From "rophe" ("to heal"); implies spiritual, emotional as well as physical healing. (Jer. 30:17, 3:22; Isa. 61:1) GOD heals body, soul, and spirit; all levels of man's being.
JEHOVAH-NISSI: "The Lord Our Banner." Ex. 17:15. GOD on the battlefield, from word which means "to glisten," "to lift up," See Psalm 4:6.
JEHOVAH-M'KADDESH: "The Lord Who Sanctifies" Lev. 20:8. "To make whole, set apart for holiness."
JEHOVAH-SHALOM: "The Lord Our Peace" Judges 6:24. "Shalom" translated "peace" 170 times means "whole," "finished," "fulfilled," "perfected." Related to "well," welfare." Deut. 27:6; Dan. 5:26; I Kings 9:25 8:61; Gen. 15:16; Ex. 21:34, 22:5, 6; Lev. 7:11-21. Shalom means that kind of peace that results from being a whole person in right relationship to GOD and to one's fellow man.
SHEPHERD: Psa. 23, 79:13, 95:7, 80:1, 100:3; Gen. 49:24; Isa. 40:11.
JUDGE: Psa. 7:8, 96:13.
JEHOVAH ELOHIM: "LORD GOD" Gen. 2:4; Judges 5:3; Isa. 17:6; Zeph. 2:9; Psa. 59:5, etc.
JEHOVAH-TSIDKENU "The Lord Our Righteousness" Jer. 23:5, 6, 33:16. From "tsidek" (straight, stiff, balanced - as on scales - full weight, justice, right, righteous, declared innocent.) GOD our Righteousness.
JEHOVAH-ROHI: "The Lord Our Shepherd" Psa. 23, from "ro'eh" (to pasture).
JEHOVAH-SHAMMAH: "The Lord is There" (Ezek. 48:35).
JEHOVAH-SABAOTH: "The Lord of Hosts" The commander of the angelic host and the armies of GOD. Isa. 1:24; Psa. 46:7, 11; 2 Kings 3:9-12; Jer. 11:20 (NT: Rom. 9:29; James 5:4, Rev. 19: 11-16).
EL ELYON: 'Most High" (from "to go up") Deut. 26:19, 32:8; Psa. 18:13; Gen. 14:18; Nu. 24:16; Psa. 78:35, 7:17, 18:13, 97:9, 56:2, 78:56, 18:13; Dan. 7:25, 27; Isa. 14:14.
ABHIR: 'Mighty One', ("to be strong") Gen. 49:24; Deut. 10:17; Psa. 132:2, 5; Isa. 1:24, 49:26, 60:1.
BRANCH: (tsemach), The Branch: Zech. 3:8, 6:12; Isa. 4:2; Jer. 23:5, 33:15.
KADOSH: "Holy One" Psa. 71:22; Isa. 40:25, 43:3, 48:17. Isaiah uses the expression "the Holy One of Israel" 29 times.
SHAPHAT: "Judge" Gen. 18:25
EL ROI: "GOD of Seeing" Hagar in Gen. 16:13. The GOD Who opens our eyes.
KANNA: "Jealous" (zealous). Ex. 20:5, 34:14; Deut. 5:9; Isa. 9:7; Zech. 1:14, 8:2.
PALET: "Deliverer" Psa. 18:2.
YESHA: (Y'shua) "Savior" Isa. 43:3. Jesus is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew "Joshua." The latter is a contraction of Je-Hoshua. ("Christ", the anointed one is equivalent to the Hebrew Maschiah, or Messiah).
GAOL: "Redeemer" (to buy back by paying a price). Job 19:25; For example, the antitype corresponding to Boaz the Kinsman-Redeemer in the Book of Ruth.
MAGEN: "Shield" Psa. 3:3, 18:30.
STONE: Gen. 49:24
EYALUTH: "Strength" Psa. 22:19.
TSADDIQ: "Righteous One" Psa. 7:9.
EL-OLAM: "Everlasting GOD" (GOD of everlasting time) Gen. 21:33; Psa. 90:1-3, 93:2; Isa. 26:4.
EL-BERITH: "GOD of the Covenant" Used of Baal in Judges 9:46. Probably used originally to refer to the GOD of israel.
EL-GIBHOR: Mighty GOD (Isa. 9:6)
ZUR: "GOD our Rock" Deut. 32:18; Isa. 30:29.
Malachi 4:2 calls Messiah "The Sun of Righteousness"
Isaiah 9:6 calls Messiah "Wonderful Counselor, Mighty GOD (El Gibhor), Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace"
'Attiq Yomin (Aramaic): "Ancient of Days," Dan. 7:9, 13, 22.
MELEKH: "King" Psa. 5:2, 29:10, 44:4, 47:6-8, 48:2, 68:24, 74:12, 95:3, 97:1, 99:4, 146:10; Isa. 5:1, 5, 41:21, 43:15, 44:6; 52:7, 52:10.
"The Angel of the Lord: " Gen. 16:7ff, 21:17, 22:11, 15ff, 18:1-19:1, 24:7, 40, 31:11-13, 32:24-30; Ex. 3:6, 13:21, Ezek. 1:10-13. Seen in the theophanies, or pre-incarnate appearances of the Son of GOD in the OT (See I Cor. 10:3 NT).
FATHER: 2 Sam. 7:14-15; Psa. 68:5; Isa. 63:16, 64:8; Mal. 1:6.
THE FIRST AND LAST: Isa. 44:6, 48:12.
ALPHA AND OMEGA: The First and the Last - The Beginning and the End.
Isaiah 44:6 ‘This is what the LORD says – Israel’s King and Redeemer; the LORD ALMIGHTY: I am the first and I am the last; apart from ME there is no GOD.”
Isaiah 48:12-13 “Listen to ME , Jacob, Israel, whom I have called: I am HE; I am the first and I am the last. MY OWN hand laid the foundations of the Earth, MY right hand spread out the heavens; when I summon them, they all stand up together.”
Revelation 1:8 “I am the Alpha and Omega,” says the Lord GOD, “WHO is, and WHO was, and WHO is to come, the Almighty.”
Revelation 1:17-18 ‘When I saw Him, I fell at His feet as though dead. Then He placed His right hand on me and said: “Do not be afraid, I am the First and the Last. I am the living One; I was dead, and now look, I am alive for ever and ever. And I hold the keys of death and Hades.’
Revelation 21;6-7 ‘He said to me: “It is done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the End. To the thirsty I will give water without cost from the spring of the water of life. Those who are victorious will inherit all this, and I will be their GOD and they will be My children.
Revelation 22;12-13 “Look I am coming soon. My reward is with Me, and I will give to each person according to what they have done. I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End.”
New Testament (NT) Scriptures - some using original Greek name.
KURIOS: (kurios) "Lord" Found some 600 times in the NT.
DESPOTES: (despotes) "Lord" 5 times: Lu. 2:29; Acts 4:24; 2 Pet. 2:1; Jude 4; Rev. 6:10.
THEOS: (yeos) "GOD" (equivalent to the Hebrew Elohim), 1,000 times in the NT. In the NT all the persons of the trinity are called "GOD" at one time or another.
I AM: Jesus upset his generation especially when He said, "Before Abraham was, I AM," John 8:58. Note also his claim to be Jehovah in such phrases as "I AM the Light of the world," "the bread of life," living water," "the Resurrection and the Life," "the Way, Truth and the Life" in John's Gospel. From the Hebrew OT verb "to be" signifying a Living, Intelligent, Personal Being.
THEOTES: "Godhead" Col. 2:9; Rom. 1:20.
HUPSISTOS: "Highest" Mt. 21:9.
SOTER: (soter) "Saviour" Luke 1:4 7.
WORD: (logos) John 1:1ff
ALMIGHTY: (pantokrator) 2 Cor. 6:18, Revelation, 9t, e.g. 19:6.
JESUS: Derived from the Hebrew Joshua --- Y'shua or Je-Hoshua meaning Jehovah is Salvation.
CHRIST: is equivalent to the Hebrew 'Messiah' (Meshiach), "The Anointed One."
Other NT Titles for Jesus: Shepherd of the Sheep; Master; King of kings; Lord of lords; Bishop and Guardian of our Souls; Daystar, Deliverer, Advocate, Last (or Second) Adam, Ancient of Days, Branch, Chief Cornerstone, Immanuel, First Born, Head of the Body, Physician, Rock, Root of Jesse, Stone, Potentate; Chief Apostle; Great High Priest; Pioneer and Perfector of our Faith (or Author and Finisher); Lamb of GOD; Lamb Slain before the Foundation of the World; Lord GOD Almighty.
LOGOS: "The Word of GOD" John l; Rev. 19:13.
SOPHIA: "The Wisdom of GOD," referring to Christ, refers back to Proverbs (I Cor. 1,2)
Father, Son, Holy Spirit: Christian orthodoxy has always understood GOD to be One GOD in Three Persons (Elohim). In The NT each person of the godhead is called "GOD" and "Lord" at least once.
Names for the Holy Spirit: Counsellor; Comforter; Baptizer; Advocate; Strengthener; Sanctifier; Spirit of Christ (not the same as the spirit of Christ); Seven-Fold Spirit (Rev.); Spirit of Truth; Spirit of Grace; Spirit of Mercy; Spirit of God; Spirit of Holiness; Spirit of Life. Symbolized in OT and NT by (l) breath or wind; (2) fire; (3) water; (4) oil; (5) light; (6) a dove.
The Deity of the Lord Jesus Christ: Most Study Bibles have notes which give references to the Deity of our Lord Jesus Christ. Here is what the Schofield Study Bible Notes say:
(1) In the intimations and explicit predictions of the O.T. (a) The theophanies intimate the appearance of GOD in human form, and His ministry thus to man (Gen. 16:7-13; 18:2-23. especially v. 17; 32. 28 with Hos. 12:3-5; Ex. 3:2-14). (b) The Messiah is expressly declared to be the Son of GOD (Psa. 2:2-9), and GOD (Psa. 45:6, 7 with Heb. 1:8,9; Psa. 110. with Mt. 22:44; Acts 2:34 and Heb. 1:13; Psa. 110.4 with Heb. 5:6; 6. 20:7. 17-21; and Zech. 6:13). (c) His virgin birth was foretold as the means through which GOD could be "Immanuel," GOD with us (Isa. 7:13, 14 with Mt. 1:22, 23). (d) The Messiah is expressly invested with the divine names (Isa. 9:6, 7). (e) In a prophecy of His death He is called Jehovah's "fellow" (Zech. 13:7 with Mt. 26:31). (f) His eternal being is declared (Mic. 5:2 with Mt. 2:6; John 7:42).
(2) Christ Himself affirmed His deity. (a) He applied to Himself the Jeho-vistic I AM. (The pronoun "he" is not in the Greek; cf. John 8:24; John 8:56-58. The Jews correctly understood this to be our Lord's claim to full deity [v. 59]. See, also, John 10:33; 18:4-6, where, also "he" is not in the original.) (b) He claimed to be the Adonai of the O.T. (Mt. 22:42-45. See Gen. 15:2, note). (c) He asserted His identity with the Father (Mt. 28:19; Mk. 14:62; John 10:30; that the Jews so understood Him is shown by vs. 31, 32; John 14:8, 9; 17. 5). (d) He exercised the chief prerogative of GOD (Mk. 2:5-7; Lk. 7:48-50). (e) He asserted omnipresence (Mt. 18:20; John 3:13); omniscience (John 11:11-14, when Jesus was fifty miles away; Mk. 11:6-8); omnipotence (Mt. 28:18; Lk. 7:14; John 5:21-23; 6. is); mastery over nature, and creative power (Lk. 9:16. 17; John 2:9, 10:28). (f) He received and approved human worship (Mt. 14:33; 28: 9, John 20: 28, 29).
(3) The N.T. writers ascribe divine titles to Christ (John 1:1; 20. 28; Acts 20:28; Rom. 1:4; 9:5; 2 Thess. 1:12; 1 Tim. 3:16; Tit. 2:23; Heb. 1:8; 1 John 5:20).
(4) The N.T. writers ascribe divine perfections and attributes to Christ (e.g. Mt. 11:28; 18:20, 28:20; John 1:2, 2:23-25; 3:13; 5:17; 21:17; Heb. 1:3, 11, 12 with Heb. 13:8; Rev. 1:8,17,18; 2:23; 11. 17; 22:13).
(5) The N.T. writers ascribe divine works to Christ (John 1:3. 16:17, Col. 1:16, 17; Heb. 1:3).
(6) The N.T. writers teach that supreme worship should be paid to Christ (Acts 7:59, 60; 1 Cor. 1:2; 2 Cor. 13:14, Phil. 2:9, 10; Heb. 1:6; Rev. 1:5, 6; 5. 12, 13).
(7) The holiness and resurrection of Christ prove His deity (John 8:46; Rom. 1:4).
Philippians 2 is the great Chapter on the kenosis or self-emptying of the Lord Jesus Christ when He became a man. His equality with the Father as the Son of GOD is stated here.
Note also John 5:18 "This was why the Jews sought all the more to kill Him, because He not only, supposedly in their minds, broke the Sabbath, but also called GOD His Father, making Himself equal with GOD." Which in truth He was.
Romans 9:5 ‘Theirs (the Jewish race) are the patriarchs, and from them is traced the human ancestry of the Messiah, Who is GOD over all, praised forever! Amen.’